Positive and Negative Test Cases

To test or break any application testing in positive important and more than that negative testing is most important, as this can help in making a project/product most efficient.

Customers expect the quality and Clients expect the satisfaction of customers.

What is a positive scenario:
For Example if a text box is lited as a feature and in SRS it is mentioned as Text box accepts 6 - 20 characters and only alphabets.
Testing the textbox in a way as if it accepts 6 characters, accepts 20 characters & value in between 6-20 characters is a positive way of approaching.

Positive Test Cases:

  • Textbox accepts 6 characters
  • Textbox accepts upto 20 chars length.
  • Textbox accepts any value in between 6-20 chars length.
  • Textbox accepts all alphabets
Negative scenario:
For the same text box if testing is done in a negative way, as below
  • Textbox should not accept less than 6 chars
  • Textbox should not accept chars more than 20 chars
  • Textbox should not accept special characters
  • Textbox should not accept numerical s

QTP vs Selenium

QTP: It is a HP mercury product.
Selenium : It is developed by Jason Huggins, and is a ThougtWorks product.

QTP: It is a Paid and licensed tool from HP
Selenium : It  is a Open Source tool available under Apache license.

QTP supports automation of both Windows and Web applications
Selenium supports only Web based applications.

Type of Tool:
QTP is a Functional and Regression tool.
Selenium is also functional and Tool.

QTP  has only one type of software but has several plugins that supports for various types of automation including Flex applications.
Selenium : Selenium has three flavors - Selenium IDE, Selenium RC and Selenium Grid.

Parallel Execution:
QTP does not support multiple run of automated scripts.
Selenium has type of software called Selenium Grid that supports the parallel execution of automation scripts with multiple browsers and multiple systems.

QTP  runs on VB scripting and also supports for various programming languages.
Selenium runs on various languages  like Java, Perl, Python, C#, Junit etc.

Record and playback:
QTP : It has record and playback feature through which we can record not only web application actions but also Windows applications actions.
Selenium : Selenium IDE itself is a Record and playback tool , through which we can record and also export those actions in form of a test case in various languages like Java, Python, Perl, Ruby, C# etc..

Testplan :
QTP has a plugin of QC which has test plans and can be run at a time.
Selenium IDE has a feature which supports for run of all test scripts at a time.

Headless Execution:
QTP does not have any feature such.
selenium has a extension or driver called HtmlUnit which simulates the browser properties and execute scripts without invoking the browser.

Objects Identification:
QTP has "are ObjectSpy" that reveals the object properties to automate the set of actions performed on elements.
Selenium does not have any object spy but there many opensource plugins that can identify the web elements properties (Ex: FireBug for FF browser, IDeveloper for IE browser, Xpather and XPathFinder etc..)

Selenium RC Vs Webdriver

Webdriver provides the alternate API's which are not supported by Selenium RC also.

It is advantageous or next version for Selenium RC.

It uses different framework underlyng it from the way Selenium Javascript uses Selenium core.

Webdriver works with the browsers directly rather than through the proxy as the Selenium RC does.
Webdriver doesnot need any server running for running the automation scripts.

Webdriver also works and interacts with different browsers like IE, FireFox etc..


1. It directly works with the browsers.
2. It has simple API's to work with.
3. It has a interesting feature of Headless execution against application with HtmlUnit drivers.
4. It works with java.
5 It responds faster than the Selenium RC


1. It does not directly interact with the browsers instead creates a proxy.
2. It has support for limited browser version.
3. It supports various scripting languages.

Software Testing Glossary

Acceptance criteria - Exit criteria that a component or system or application must satisfy in order to be accepted by an end user or customer or other authorized entity.

Acceptance Testing: Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.

Accessibility Testing: Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).

Accuracy - Capability of software product or application to provide the agreed results or effectswith specified degree of precision.

Actual Result - Behavior produced or observed when a component or system is tested.

Ad Hoc Testing: A testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system's functionality. Can include negative testing as well. See also Monkey Testing.

Adaptability - is the capability of software product to be adapted for specified multiple environments without applying actions other than those provided for the specific purpose for the software considered.

Agile Testing: Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development.

Automated Software Quality (ASQ): The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.

Alpha Testing - Operational testing by intented users / customers or an independent test team at the developer's location. Alpha testing is often employed for off the shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing.

Analyzability- capability of the software product or system to be diagnosed for deficiencies or causes of failures in the software or for the parts to be modified to be identified.

Automated Testware - Testware used in test automation such as tool scripts etc.

Back to Back Testing - Software Testing in which more than one variants of a software system are executed with the same inputs and the outputs compared & analyzed in cases of discrepancies.

Basis Path Testing: A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.

Basis Set: The set of tests derived using basis path testing.

Beta Testing: Testing of a re-release of a software product conducted by customers.

Benchmark Test - A test that is be used to compare components or systems to each other or to a standard.

Big Bang Testing: Type of integration testing in which software elements and hardware
elements are combined all at once.

Binary Portability Testing: Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.

Black Box Testing: Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component.

Blocked test case - A test case which cannot be executed because the pre-conditions for its
execution are not fulfilled.

Bottom Up Testing: An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

Boundary Testing: Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).

Boundary Value - Input value or output value which is on the edge of an equivalence
partition or at the smallest incremental distance on either side of an edge. The example can be
minimum or maximum value of a range.

Boundary Value Coverage - %age of boundary values that have been exercised by a test suite.

Branch Coverage - %age of branches that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% branch coverage implies both 100% decision coverage and 100% statement coverage.

Bug: A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner.

Boundary Value Analysis: BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on "corner cases" or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. his means that if a function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001.

Branch Testing: Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once.

Breadth Testing: A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail.

Business Process Based Testing - An approach to software testing in which test cases are designed based on descriptions and knowledge of business processes and components.

CAST: Computer Aided Software Testing.

Capture/Replay Tool: A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.

CMM: The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.

Cause Effect Graph: A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases.

Changeability - capability of the software or system to enable specified modifications to be implemented.

Classification Tree Method - Black box test design technique in which test cases, described by means of a classification tree which are designed to execute combinations of representatives of input and output domains.

Code Complete: Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety; bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.

Code Coverage: An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.

Code Inspection: A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards.

Code Walkthrough: A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer's logic and assumptions.

Compatibility Testing: Testing whether software is compatible with other elements of a system with which it should operate, e.g. browsers, Operating Systems, or hardware.

Compliance - Capability of the software product to adhere to standards or regulations in laws and similar prescriptions.

Compliance Testing - Process of testing to determine the compliance of component or

Component - minimal software item that can be tested in isolation.

Component Integration Testing - Software Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces & interaction between components.

Compound Condition Testing - Testing tTwo or more single conditions joined by means of a logical operator.

Concurrency Testing: Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.

Conformance Testing: The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formal standard.

Context Driven Testing: The context-driven school of software testing is flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now.

Conversion Testing: Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.

Cyclomatic Complexity: A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing.

Daily Build - It is a development activity where a complete system is compiled and linked every day so that a consistent system is available at any time including all latest changes.

Data Driven Testing: Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.

Data Flow Testing - White box test design technique in which software test cases are designed to execute definition and use pairs of variables.

Database Integrity Testing: Testing the methods used to access and manage the data or database to ensure that during access to the database, data is not corrupted or unexpectedly deleted, updated or created.

Decision Condition Testing - White box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes and decision outcomes.

Decision Table Testing - Black box test design techniques in which test cases are designed to execute the combinations of inputs put in a decision table.

Defect: Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification

Defect Management - Process of recognizing, investigating, taking action and disposing
of defects. It involves recording and tracking of defects by classifying them and identifying the impact.

Defect Masking - Occurrence in which one defect prevents the detection of another.

Dependency Testing: Examines an application's requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.

Depth Testing: A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.

Design Based Testing - Approach to test in which test cases are designed based on architecture and detailed design of the system.

Development Testing - A Formal or informal testing conducted by developers during the implementation of a component or system.

Documentation Testing - Testing of the quality of the documentation.

Dynamic Testing: Testing software through executing it. See also Static Testing.

Efficiency Testing - Process of testing to determine the efficiency of a software product.

Elementary Comparison Testing - Black box test design technique in which the concept of condition determination coverage is used to design the test cases are to execute combinations of inputs.

Endurance Testing: Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.

End-to-End testing: Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.

Equivalence Class: A portion of a component's input or output domains for which the component's behavior is assumed to be the same from the component's specification.

Equivalence Partitioning: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.

Error Guessing - Test design technique where the experience of a tester is used to identify what defects might be present in the component or system under test.

Error seeding - Process of intentionally adding known defects to a component or system for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection, removal and estimating the number of remaining defects.

Exhaustive Testing: Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.

Exploratory Testing: It is an informal test design technique where a tester actively controls the design of the tests as those tests are performed while testing to design new and better tests.

Functional Decomposition: A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.

Functional Specification: A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.

Functional Testing:

· Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications.

· Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions.

Frozen Test Basis - Test basis document that can only be modified or amended by a formal change control process.

Gorilla Testing: Testing one particular module,functionality heavily.

Gray Box Testing: A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies: testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.

High Order Tests: Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.

Independent Test Group (ITG): A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing.

Inspection: A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).

Integration Testing: Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

Installation Testing: Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

Localization Testing: This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.

Loop Testing: A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.

Monkey Testing: Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.

Negative Testing: Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as "test to fail".

Path Testing: Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.

Penetration testing: Evaluating the security of a computer system or network by hacking. it is the process of actively evaluating your information security measures. For more datails, please see my other post on Penetration Testing

Performance Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users.

Positive Testing: Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as "test to pass".

Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.

Quality Audit: A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.

Quality Circle: A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality.

Quality Control: The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality.

Ramp Testing: Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down.

Recovery Testing: Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

Regression Testing: Retesting a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made.

Release Candidate: A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs (which ideally should be removed before the final version is released).

Sanity Testing: Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if its basically operational.

Scalability Testing: Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load.

Security Testing: Testing which confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.

Smoke Testing: A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire.

Soak Testing: Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. For example, running several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed.

Software Testing: A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software.

Static Analysis: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.

Static Analyzer: A tool that carries out static analysis.

Static Testing: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.

Storage Testing: Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage.

Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how. Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load.

Structural Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software.

System Testing: Testing that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than of its individual components.

Testability: The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.


· The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors.

· The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs), and to evaluate the features of the software item (Ref. IEEE Std 829).

· The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component.

Test Bed: An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerated the test beds(s) to be used.

Test Case:

· Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc.

· A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.

Test Driven Development: Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code.

Test Driver: A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness.

Test Environment: The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.

Test First Design: Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP).It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test.

Test Harness: A program or test tool used to execute a tests.

Test Plan: A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.

Test Procedure: A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.

Test Script: Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool.

Test Specification: A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.

Test Suite: A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test.

Test Tools: Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation.

Thread Testing: A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.

Top Down Testing: An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.

Total Quality Management: A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high quality product and customer satisfaction.

Traceability Matrix: A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases.

Usability Testing: Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.

Use Case: The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.

Unit Testing: Testing of individual software components.

Validation: The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation is testing, inspection and reviewing.

Verification: The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meet the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques for verification are testing, inspection and reviewing.

Volume Testing: Testing which confirms that any values that may become large over time (such as accumulated counts, logs, and data files), can be accommodated by the program and will not cause the program to stop working or degrade its operation in any manner.

Walkthrough: A review of requirements, designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review.

White Box Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. Includes techniques such as Branch Testing and Path Testing. Also known as Structural Testing and Glass Box Testing.

Workflow Testing: Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflows which are expected to be utilized by the end-user.

Actions, Accessors and Assertions

  • Actions are commands that generally manipulate the state of the application. They do things like “click this link” and “select that option”. If an Action fails, or has an error, the execution of the current test is stopped.
  • Accessors examine the state of the application and store the results in variables, e.g. “storeTitle”. They are also used to automatically generate Assertions.
  • Assertions are like Accessors, but they verify that the state of the application conforms to what is expected. Examples include “make sure the page title is X” and “verify that this checkbox is checked”.

Selenium Selenese

Selenium provides a rich set of commands for fully testing your web-app in virtually any way you may imagine. The command set is often called Selenese. These commands essentially create a testing language.

In selenese, one can test the existence of UI elements based on their HTML tags, test for specific content, test for broken links, input fields, selection list options, submitting forms, and table data among other things. In addition Selenium commands support testing of window size, mouse position, alerts, Ajax functionality, pop up windows, event handling, and many other web-application features.

Cause of Defects / Bugs

Below are few commons reasons why bugs / defects occurs in an software :

1. Human factor: It is because human beings develop software. It is often said that “to err is human, to forgive divine”. Human beings are not perfect. They are prone to make mistakes. As human beings develop software, it would be foolish to expect the software to be perfect and without any defects in it! Hence there are errors in software. Ironically, we are yet to discover any other non-human agent who could develop software any better than human beings. So we continue to rely on the human intelligence to develop software thus allowing chances of errors in it.

2. Communication failure: Another common reason for software defects can be miscommunication, lack of communication or erroneous communication during software development! The communication failure can happen at different levels (requirement gathering stage, requirement interpretation/documentation stage, requirement-to-implementation translation stage etc.). Imagine a case where the requirements are vague or incomplete. This could lead to a situation where the programmers would have to deal with problems that are not clearly understood, thus leading to errors. Another scenario of problem with communication may arise when a programmer tries to modify code developed by another programmer.

3. Unrealistic development timeframe: Let’s face it. More often than not software are developed under crazy release schedules, with limited/insufficient resources and with unrealistic project deadlines. So it is probable that compromises are made in requirement/design to meet delivery schedules. Sometimes the programmers are not given enough time to design, develop or test their code before handing it over to the testing team. Late design changes can require last minute code changes, which are likely to introduce errors.

4. Poor design logic: In this era of complex software systems development, sometimes the software is so complicated that it requires some level of R&D and brainstorming to reach a reliable solution. Lack of patience and an urge to complete it as quickly as possible may lead to errors. Misapplication of technology (components, products, techniques), desire/temptation to use the easiest way to implement solution, lack of proper understanding of the technical feasibility before designing the architecture all can invite errors. Unfortunately, it is not that the people are not smart; it is just that they often don't-have-time/are-not-allowed to think!

5. Poor coding practices: Sometimes errors are slipped into the code due to simply bad coding. Bad coding practices such as inefficient or missing error/exception handling, lack of proper validations (datatypes, field ranges, boundary conditions, memory overflows etc.) may lead to introduction of errors in the code. In addition to this some programmers might be working with poor tools, faulty compilers, debuggers, profilers, validators etc. making it almost inevitable to invite errors and making it too difficult to debug them!

6. Lack of version control: If as a tester you keep encountering lots of occasion of regression bugs that keep showing up at regular intervals, then it is about time to check the version control system (if at all any). Concurrent version systems help in keeping track of all work and all changes in a set of code base. Complete lack of a version control system to safeguard the frequently changing code base is a sure fire way to get lots of regression errors. Even if a version control system (e.g. Visual SourceSafe) is in place, errors might still slip into the final builds if the programmers fail to make sure that the most recent version of each module are linked when a new version is being built to be tested.

7. Buggy third-party tools: Quite often during software development we require many third-party tools, which in turn are software and may contain some bugs in them. These tools could be tools that aid in the programming (e.g. class libraries, shared DLLs, compilers, HTML editors, debuggers etc.) or some third-party shrink-wrapped plug-ins/add-ons used to save time (like a shopping cart plug-in, a map navigation API, a third party client for 24X7 tech support etc.). A bug in such tools may in turn cause bugs in the software that is being developed.

8. Lack of skilled testing: No tester would want to accept it but let’s face it; poor testing do take place across organizations. There can be shortcomings in the testing process that are followed. Lack of seriousness for testing, scarcity of skilled testing, testing activity conducted without much importance given to it etc. continues to remain major threats to the craft of software testing. Give your team some time to introspect and I won’t be too surprised if you find it in your own testing team! While you might argue that poor testing do not *introduce errors* in software, actually they do! Poor testing do leave the software in a buggy state. Moreover, in this era of agile software development poor unit tests (e.g. in TDD) may result in poor coding and hence escalate the risk of errors.

9. Last minute changes: Changes that are made to requirement, infrastructure, tools, platform can be dangerous, especially if are being made at the 11th hours of a project release. Actions like database migration, making your software compatible across a variety of OS/browsers can be complex things and if done in a hurry due to a last minute change in the requirement may cause errors in the application.

Testing Principles

1. All tests should be traceable to customer requirements : This is in order to uncover any defects that might cause the program or system to fail to meet the client’s requirements.

2. Tests should be planned long before testing begins : Soon after the requirements model is completed, test planning can begin. Detailed test cases can begin as soon as the design model is designed.

3. The Pareto principle applies to software testing : Stated simply, the Pareto principle implies that 80 percent of all errors uncovered during testing will likely be traceable to 20 percent of all program components. The problem, of course, is to isolate these suspect components and to thoroughly test them.

4. Testing should begin “in the small” and progress toward testing “in the large.” : The first tests planned and executed generally focus on individual components. As testing progresses, focus shifts in an attempt to find errors in integrated clusters of components and ultimately in the entire system.

5. Exhaustive testing is not possible : The number of path permutations for even a moderately-sized program is exceptionally large. For this reason, it is impossible to execute every combination of paths during testing. It is possible, however, to adequately cover program logic and to ensure that all conditions in the component-level design have been exercised.

6. To be most effective, testing should be conducted by an independent third party : The software engineer who has created the system is not the best person to conduct all tests for the software.

Software Developement Life Cycle (SDLC)

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is the process of developing software through business needs, analysis, design, implementation and maintenance.

1. Information Gathering : In this stage, Business Analyst studies the requirement of the client /customer and they prepare Business Requirement Specification (BRS) documents.

2. Analysis : In this stage, Sr. Analyst prepares Software Requirement Specification (S/w RS) document with respect to corresponding BRS document. This document consists of two sub-documents System Requirement Specification (SRS) & Functional Requirement Specification (FRS). SRS contain details about software & hardware requirement. FRS contains details about the functionality to be used in project.

3. Design : In designing phase, Designers creates two documents High Level Document (HLD) & Low Level Document (LLD). HLD consists of main modules of the project from root to leaf and multiple LLD’s. LLD consists of sub-modules of main module along with Data flow diagrams, ER-Diagrams, etc., are prepared by technical support people or designers called Internal designers.

4. Coding : If you compare it to a business model, coding is the “operations” of the software development plan. Everything is realized during this stage. The colors and the functions are gradually developed at this point. Developers will make use of different kinds of coding techniques in their preferred platforms. They may create different platforms or create a mash-up of different platforms to different programs. Whatever their coding technique is, they will be adhering to the plans set out by the workflow. Once the program is finished, a prototype is set out for the next stage of the process.

5. Testing : Of course the program, on its first run will not perfect or wouldn’t exactly work as planned. It has to go through rigorous testing. In this stage, bugs are found and some irregularities in the software are somehow fixed. If something goes wrong with the program, it could be fixed with a simple change in codes but if the program is not working as planned, it will be returned to the developers for another round of coding. Testing will make sure the customer gets what they want all the time. Nothing is compromised during this stage. Depending on the program’s coding efficiency, testing could last for a very long time.

6. Implementation : Once testing is finished and the software is proven good for implementation, it is released to the public or will be removed from beta version. It’s expected that on first days, developers will face serious challenge of fixing different bugs as they are discovered one by one by different users. The main difference of the implementation stage to the testing is the amount of bugs expected. Since they are implemented to the public or a wider audience, it’s already expected that it should work properly.

7. Maintenance : With the software properly implemented, developers role in this software does not end there.  Instead, they will have to work reactively for this software. Instead of looking for the problems in their created software, developers will only be providing answers to their problems.

Role of a Tester

The roles and responsibilities of a tester often vary from organization to organization. In general, a tester's main purpose is to design, develop, and conduct tests on an application and supports acceptance testing for the same.

However, to categorize, roles and responsibilities of a tester includes:

  • Analyzing client requirements
  • Understand the software application being tested
  • Prepare test strategy
  • Participating in test plan preparation
  • Preparing test scenarios
  • Preparing test cases
  • Preparing test data (used for test cases)
  • Preparing test environment
  • Analyzing test cases
  • Write necessary test scripts
  • Executing the test cases
  • Defect tracking
  • Perform necessary retesting
  • Providing defect information
  • Preparing report summaries
  • Conducting review meetings within the team